constable paintings such as the hay wain exemplify what concerns or themes below
East Anglia had a special capacity for holding the affections of artists born in the region. John Crome (1768-1821), who spent nearly the whole of his life in his native city of Norwich and as the founder of the Norwich Society of Artists in 1803 became the leader of England’s only local school, was even more of a regionalist than Constable. Unlike either, Turner, born in west central London, amid dusky brick and under smoke-laden sky had to travel to gain his first experience of rural landscape. The topographical drawing which brought him early success caused him to make frequent expeditions about the country, and the romantic restlessness as well as the demand for albums with illustrations of places abroad, which arose at the end of the Napoleonic wars, impelled him regularly about Europe.
Landscape Art: Its Position in the Hierarchy of Genres
History and Development of Landscape Painting
16th Century (Joachim Patenir, Albrecht Durer, Pieter Bruegel)
17th Century (Aelbert Cuyp, Jacob Van Ruisdael, Poussin, Claude-Lorrain)
18th Century (England & Europe)
19th Century (English School, Barbizon, Impressionism, Hudson River School)
English Landscape Painting in Perspective (Article)
20th Century (Fauvist, Cubist, Expressionist landscapes, abstract scenes)
Unlike his contemporaries, he found that mountains did not exhilarate but depressed him, and he made no further sketching tours. A casual visit to a new scene could not replace for him the long process of getting to know a landscape intimately, and accordingly he went year after year from his London home to visit his close friends in the southern counties. During this time he painted two altarpieces for local churches. He made efforts to succeed as a portrait painter, the chief means of earning a living then available to an English artist. By 1810, he was producing oil sketches of the countryside in which he achieved natural colour, and rich atmospheric quality, free from the shackles of past formalism.
William Powell Frith painted highly detailed scenes of social life, typically including all classes of society, that include comic and moral elements and have an acknowledged debt to Hogarth, though tellingly different from his work. 
John Flaxman was the most thorough-going neo-classical English artist. Beginning as a sculptor, he became best known for his many spare “outline drawings” of classical scenes, often illustrating literature, which were reproduced as prints. These imitated the effects of the classical-style reliefs he also produced. The German-Swiss Henry Fuseli also produced work in a linear graphic style, but his narrative scenes, often from English literature, were intensely Romantic and highly dramatic. 
Describe the emergence of landscape painting in France, England, Holland, and the United States during the years of the Enlightenment
Romanticism was also inspired by the German Sturm und Drang movement (Storm and Stress), which prized intuition and emotion over Enlightenment rationalism. This proto-romantic movement was centered on literature and music, but also influenced the visual arts. The movement emphasized individual subjectivity. Extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements.
Although Constable never intended to exhibit his sketches, producing them for his own study and the development of more ‘finished’ canvases, they make up an important part of his body of work. They are now considered some of his most ‘modern’ and interesting pieces in that they made an even more radical and pioneering break from the traditions of academic art than the paintings he did display.
Constable has constructed the painting so that the viewer stands on the near bank of the river and the size of the image (it was another six-footer) in conjunction with the carefully rendered fall of light enables the viewer to feel that they could enter the scene. The image highlights the glory of nature without resorting to artifice or exaggeration and reflects Constable’s determination to paint the truth of what he saw. In doing this the scene is presented with an absolute sincerity which is immediately apparent to the viewer.