ingres grande odalisque romanticism
The painting includes several typical devices used by Ingres. Notice, for example, the lack of illusionary depth in the picture which focuses attention on the figure. She herself is, as usual, created with long, sinuous lines, while her skin is bathed in a diffused soft light, with none of the exaggerated chiaroscuro championed by Caravaggio (1573-1610) and his supporters. And as usual, the artist demonstrates his exceptional skill in rendering the different fabrics and surfaces, as well as the fine details of the turban, fan and curtains.
Death of Marat (1793) by Jacques-Louis David.
Stemming from the initial criticism the painting received, the figure in Grande Odalisque is thought to be drawn with “two or three vertebrae too many.”   Critics at the time believed the elongations to be errors on the part of Ingres, but recent studies show the elongations to have been deliberate distortions.  Measurements taken on the proportions of real women showed that Ingres’s figure was drawn with a curvature of the spine and rotation of the pelvis impossible to replicate.  It also showed the left arm of the odalisque is shorter than the right. The study concluded that the figure was longer by five instead of two or three vertebrae and that the excess affected the lengths of the pelvis and lower back instead of merely the lumbar region. 
La Grande Odalisque was appropriated by the feminist art group Guerrilla Girls for their first color poster and most iconic image. The 1989 Metropolitan Museum poster gave Ingres’s odalisque a gorilla mask and posed the question “Do women have to be naked to get into the Met. Museum?”. The poster used data from the group’s first “weenie count” and drew attention to the overwhelming number of female nudes counted in the Modern Art sections of The Met. The poster was rejected by the Public Art Fund in New York and was run in advertising space on New York City buses until the bus company cancelled the lease arguing that the image was “too suggestive and that the figure appeared to have more than a fan in her hand.”  
Francisco de Goya, the Spanish painter and printer, used his paintings to attack abuses of government both Spanish and French. His highly imaginative and nightmarish works reveal subjective emotionalism in humanity and nature, often at their malevolent worst.
1814 “Odalisque” Ingres, Jean-Auguste (1780-1867)
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, La Grande Odalisque, 1814, oil on canvas, 36″ × 63″ (91 × 162 cm), (Musée du Louvre, Paris).
It would be easy to characterize Ingres as a consistent defender of the Neo-Classical style from his time in David’s studio into the middle of the 19th century. Remember that the Apotheosis of Homer dates to 1827. But the truth is more interesting than that.
La Grande Odalisque has been described by Baudelaire as a painter of “profound sensual delights.”
Work by other Artists:
Odalisque, 1857 by Eugène Delacroix.:
Like Ingres, Delacroix was interested in exotic and dramatic subjects. This sensuous work by the French artist was painted in Paris. Though his model may have been a Parisian, he transformed her to Oriental; an exciting, erotically charged world of harems. Delacroix exhibited his reaction against the classical ideal here with his version of the odalisque.