sandro botticelli biografia resumida
There is often uncertainty in distinguishing between the contributions of Botticelli, the Lippis, and other pupils and imitators of Botticelli. Especially in smaller works such as Madonnas, all the leading painters were copied or imitated by their own workshops and a host of unidentified lesser artists.  Influenced also by the monumentality of Masaccio’s painting, it was from Lippi that Botticelli learned a more intimate and detailed manner. Even at this early date, his work was characterized by a conception of the figure as if seen in low relief, drawn with clear contours, and minimizing strong contrasts of light and shadow which would indicate fully modelled forms. Lippi’s synthesis of the new control of three-dimensional forms, tender expressiveness in face and gesture, and decorative details inherited from the late Gothic style were the strongest influences on Botticelli. A different influence was the new sculptural monumentality of the Pollaiuolo brothers. 
A large fresco for the customs house of Florence, that is now lost, depicted the execution by hanging of the leaders of the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 against the Medici. It was a Florentine custom to humiliate traitors in this way, by the so-called “pittura infamante“.  This was Botticelli’s first major fresco commission (apart from the abortive Pisa excursion), and may have led to his summons to Rome. The figure of Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa was removed in 1479, after protests from the Pope, and the rest were destroyed after the expulsion of the Medici and return of the Pazzi family in 1494.  Another lost work was a tondo of the Madonna ordered by a Florentine banker in Rome to present to Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga; this perhaps spread awareness of his work to Rome. A fresco in the Palazzo Vecchio, headquarters of the Florentine state, was lost in the next century when Vasari remodelled the building. 
In 1472 Botticelli enrolled in the Compagnia di San Luca, registering Filippino Lippi as his assistant. Filippino’s presence in his workshop has given rise to debate over a group of works, attributed first to Botticelli himself, then to a fictitious “Amico di Sandro”; scholars today generally agree in ascribing them to the young Filippino, active in Botticelli’s workshop. The 1470s also saw the beginning of Botticelli’s close relationship with the Medici family, which resulted in a series of commissions including the Portrait of a Young Man with a Medal of Cosimo the Elder (Uffizi, no. 1488); the various versions of a portrait of Giuliano de’ Medici (Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, no. 524; Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, no. 106B; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1952.5.56); the Adoration of the Magi (Uffizi, no. 882) painted for Gaspare del Lama, but also containing Medici portraits; and the Allegory of Spring, Birth of Venus, and Pallas and the Centaur (Uffizi, nos. 8360, 878, and 29 Dep), painted for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici. In 1481-1482 Botticelli was called to Rome to participate in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, where he painted, along with a series of full-length figures of popes, the Temptations of Moses, Temptations of Christ, and Conturbation of the Laws of Moses. Direct contact with the monuments of ancient Rome enriched his pictorial idiom; he framed the rhythms of his narratives with a new grandeur and naturalness, animated in the Sistine Chapel murals by the lively and complex movement of the figures and the inclusion of an extraordinary succession of portraits.
Although there is no official record of the year and day of Botticelli’s birth, scholars consider as the most reliable source his father’s tax declaration that on 1 March 1447 Alessandro was two years old, making 1445 his birth year. However, according to Florentine style the year began on March 25, thus translating the year of his birth to 1446 in the modern calendar. The son of Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, Alessandro–whose nickname derives from that of his brother Giovanni, called “Botticello” (little barrel)–entered Filippo Lippi’s workshop toward the end of the 1450s. The mark of Lippi’s style is clearly recognizable in Sandro’s earliest paintings, works such as the Madonna and Child in the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence and the Madonna and Child with an Angel in the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio. In the mid-1460s, perhaps because of Fra Filippo’s departure for Spoleto in 1467, the young artist moved into the sphere of Verrocchio, whose style is reflected in another group of Botticelli’s early paintings, which attest a more analytical vision, an interest in anatomy, and an attention to gestures that reveal states of mind. Works from this period include the Madonna and Child in the Musée du Louvre, Paris (no. 1298) and the Madonna and Child with Angels in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples (no. 46). His first documented commission was for the figure of Fortitude (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, no. 1606), painted in 1470 to complete the series of allegorical images created by the Pollaiuolo brothers’ workshop for the Tribunale della Mercanzia. To this period also belong the Virgin against a Rose-Hedge (no. 1601) and the diptych Judith and Holofernes (nos. 1484, 1487) in the Uffizi, in which the artist’s perfect mastery of drawing and skill at expressing intense emotions demonstrate the full achievement of his maturity.
Lightbown, R. W. Sandro Botticelli. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978.
Botticelli became crippled in his later years and failed to receive painting assignments. He may have continued to work on his set of drawings (never finished) illustrating Dante’s (1265–1321) Divine Comedy. By about 1504, when the young Raphael (1483–1520) came to Florence to observe the new styles of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and Michelangelo (1475–1564), Botticelli’s art must have seemed old-fashioned, although it had been widely copied in the 1490s.
Botticelli recibió de Lorenzo Pierfrancesco de Médicis el encargo de representar la historia del nacimiento de esta diosa pagana, deidad que encuentra sus equivalentes en la diosa egipcia Isis o Iemanjá en Umbanda, entre otras.
Con ello, el artista logra, en efecto, crear un modelo de belleza que acompañará a la humanidad hasta nuestros días. El Nacimiento de Venus de Botticelli es, de alguna forma, el nacimiento de una idea de feminidad dentro del arte renacentista.
Amid political strife and the temporary expulsion of the French from Milan, da Vinci left the city and moved to Rome in 1513 along with Salai, Melzi and two studio assistants. Giuliano de’ Medici, brother of newly installed Pope Leo X and son of his former patron, gave da Vinci a monthly stipend along with a suite of rooms at his residence inside the Vatican.
Young da Vinci received little formal education beyond basic reading, writing and mathematics instruction, but his artistic talents were evident from an early age.