school of athens by raphael is a good example of what kind of perspective
Stanza della Segnatura
The School of Athens fresco was an immediate success, with none of the reservations which greeted the completion of Michelangelo’s Genesis Fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Its pictorial concept, formal beauty and thematic unity were universally appreciated, by the Papal authorities and other artists, as well as patrons and art collectors. It ranks alongside Leonardo’s Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, and Michelangelo’s Vatican frescoes, as the embodiment of Renaissance ideals of the early cinquecento.
The cartoon for the painting is in the Pinacoteca Ambrosiana in Milan.  Missing from it is the architectural background, the figures of Heraclitus, Raphael, and Protogenes. The group of the philosophers in the left foreground strongly recall figures from Leonardo’s Adoration of the Magi.  Additionally, there are some engravings of the scene’s sculptures by Marcantonio Raimondi; they may have been based on lost drawings by Raphael, as they do not match the fresco exactly. 
There are two sculptures in the background. The one on the left is the god Apollo, god of light, archery and music, holding a lyre.  The sculpture on the right is Athena, goddess of wisdom, in her Roman guise as Minerva. 
It is surprising, in light of the enthusiasm for perspective depth representation in this period, to find that almost all Renaissance examples relied on the simple one-point perspective scheme. The characteristic of this scheme is that verticals and one set of horizontals (the tranversals) are parallel to the picture plane, so they exhibit no convergence and remain at right angle to each other. Only the third set of horizontals recede into the distance, and hence to a single vanishing point. Artists of the 15th and 16th centuries almost never broke away from the concept of a principal vanishing point governing a rectangular grid on which the architectural elements were constructed. Three examples from the middle of the 15th century using a central vanishing point are shown in Fig. 6. The Piero della Francesca, in particular, has been extensively analyzed for the correctness of its perspective (Wittkower & Carter, 1953), and for the highly accurate detail of the extreme foreshortening in the pavement design, in particular.
Fig. 7. ‘The School of Athens’ by Raphael (1505), a fine example of architectural perspective with a central vanishing point, marking the high point of the classical Renaissance.
One of the most striking figures in the composition is a brooding man seated in the foreground, hand on his head in a classic “thinker” position. This figure doesn’t show up in Raphael’s preliminary drawings and plaster analysis shows that it was added later. Art historians Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny write in their book Raphael that it “is probably Raphael’s first attempt to appropriate some of the heavyweight power of Michelangelo’s Sistine Prophets and sibyls.”
Raphael rose to the challenge, creating an extensive catalog of preparatory sketches for all his frescoes. These would later be blown up in the full-scale cartoons to help transfer the design to the wet plaster. Working at the same time as Michelangelo, it’s thought that this helped push and inspire Raphael by stimulating his competitive nature.
After he had been welcomed very affectionately by Pope Julius, Raphael started to paint in the Stanza della Segnatura a fresco showing the theologians reconciling Philosophy and Astrology with Theology, in which are portraits of all the sages of the world shown disputing among themselves in various ways. The original name of the fresco actually isCausarum Cognitio (Knowledge of Causes) but it is called School of Athens from a 17th century guidebook.
School of Athens