the rape of proserpina artist uses what form of art to make skin look real
Most critics have been quick to praise the work. Rudolf Wittkower noted: “representations of such rape scenes depended on Bernini’s new, dynamic conception for the next hundred and fifty years”.  Howard Hibbard makes similar comments noting the realistic effects that Bernini had achieved via carving hard marble, such as the “texture of the skin, the flying ropes of hair, the tears of Persephone and above all the yielding flesh of the girl”.  The choice of incident to depict the story is commonly cited as well: Pluto’s hands encircle the waist of Proserpina just as she throws her arms out in an attempt to escape.  Bernini’s own son and biographer, Domenico, called it “an amazing contrast of tenderness and cruelty”. 
However, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when Bernini’s reputation was at a low ebb, critics found fault with the statue. The eighteenth-century French visitor Jerome de la Lande allegedly wrote: “Pluto’s back is broken; his figure extravagant, without character, nobleness of expression, and its outline bad; the female one no better”.  Another French visitor to the Villa Ludovisi was equally critical, stating: “The head of Pluto is vulgarly gay; his crown and beard give him a ridiculous air, while the muscles are strongly marked and the figure poses. It is not a true divinity, but a decorative god. ” 
In The Rape of Persephone the figures twist and strain in opposing directions, testifying to a Mannerist influence; their tense struggle is imbued with an explosive dynamism.
These figures are hardly the gritty street walkers that populate Caravaggio’s paintings, but certain details are breathtaking for the verisimilitude, especially the dimpling of Persephone’s flesh as Pluto’s fingers dig into her thigh and waist.
A life-size marble sculpture, David is a portrait of the biblical David as he prepares to throw a stone that would defeat Goliath. Another piece commissioned by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, it still resides in the Galleria Borghese. Bernini depicted David dressed in typical shepherd’s attire, with the armor of Israel’s King, Saul, given to David for battle, and his harp, lying beneath.
There are three generations of the Aeneas family depicted. Aeneas himself, who is a semi-god, is depicted with the lion skin draped around his body, which commonly stands for power and is related to Hercules. In the sculpture, many saw the evolution from earlier Mannerist sculptures, as Bernini conceived it so the viewer can see the expression of the three characters from a single viewpoint.
Italian Sculptor and Architect
Damned Soul is believed by some to be a self-portrait. Bernini would have looked in a mirror and some believe he even cut his arm to produce the agonized expression on his face. Although produced early in Bernini’s career, these works brought together many elements that would remain present in all of Bernini’s future works such as religious salvation, intense human emotion, and technical skill in sensual depictions of the human body.
Indeed this is also an extremely complicated sculpture with the intermingling of three separate masses as one solid form. Torgil Magnuson states, “The contorted spiral, and the lines which can be followed though Aeneas’ arms and Anchises ‘ thighs and which tempt the spectator to walk round the sculpture, are certainly a relic of Mannerism’s figura serpentinata , although it was doubtless intended that the main viewpoint should be diagonally to the front of the statue” (Magnuson, 1183)
Grove Art, Bernini. www.groveart.com