what topic did constable avoid in the haywain
Graham Reynolds, ‘The Later Paintings and Drawings of John Constable’, New Haven, London 1984, pp. 67-70, pls. 213-215.
Following the fashion for painting mountainous, Romantic scenery, he spent some time in Derbyshire (1801) and the Lake District (1806), but it was only on his return to the quieter, less spectacular countryside of his native Suffolk that he developed his personal style. From 1810 there is an uninterrupted series of drawings and oil sketches painted in the open air and depicting his native countryside in what was an unusually fresh and direct manner.
History painting in the grand manner continued to be the most prestigious form of art, though not the easiest to sell, and Reynolds made several attempts at it, as unsuccessful as Hogarth’s. The unheroic nature of modern dress was seen as a major obstacle in the depiction of contemporary scenes, and the Scottish gentleman-artist and art dealer Gavin Hamilton preferred classical scenes as well as painting some based on his Eastern travels, where his European figures by-passed the problem by wearing Arab dress. He spent most of his adult life based in Rome and had at least as much influence on Neo-Classicism in Europe as in Britain. The Irishman James Barry was an influence on Blake but had a difficult career, and spent years on his cycle The Progress of Human Culture in the Great Room of the Royal Society of Arts. The most successful history painters, who were not afraid of buttons and wigs, were both Americans settled in London: Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley, though one of his most successful works Watson and the Shark (1778) was able to mostly avoid them, showing a rescue from drowning. Smaller scale subjects from literature were also popular, pioneered by Francis Hayman, one of the first to paint scenes from Shakespeare, and Joseph Highmore, with a series illustrating the novel Pamela. At the end of the period the Boydell Shakespeare Gallery was an ambitious project for paintings, and prints after them, illustrating “the Bard”, as he had now become, and exposing the limitations of contemporary English history painting.  Joseph Wright of Derby was mainly a portrait painter who also was one of the first artists to depict the Industrial Revolution, as well as developing a cross between the conversation piece and history painting in works like An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1768) and A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery (c. 1766), which like many of his works are lit only by candlelight, giving a strong chiaroscuro effect. 
The training of artists, which had long been neglected, began to improve in the 18th century through private and government initiatives, and greatly expanded in the 19th century. Public exhibitions and the later opening of museums brought art to a wider public, especially in London. In the 19th century publicly displayed religious art once again became popular after a virtual absence since the Reformation, and, as in other countries, movements such as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the Glasgow School contended with established Academic art.
Study on the go
As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.
Research by the BBC’s Fake or Fortune? programme found it is an early version of Constable’s famous Hay Wain.
“I promised the person I sold it to that one day I would return and try and prove it and wonderfully, we were able to do it,” Mr Mould said.
For Crowley, it was a revelation. By the time he completed his master’s at the Royal College of Art in 1975, he was an abstract painter, but by the end of the decade, based in London, he had moved into representation. He began to make frenetically busy urban compositions, rooted in the real world but with a soaring, magic-realist quality, their twisting, labyrinthine spaces illuminated by shafts of intense light. Subsequently, packed floral still lifes were also busy, but more sparing with colour.
In his work, Brian Fay takes on the role of a kind of fine art archaeologist. He considers the art object not as a notional Platonic ideal but in the real world. The passing of time is central to that state. His consideration of the object extends beyond its history of inevitable, progressive decay to its often piecemeal construction. The stages of making, ageing, disintegration and conservation meet in his complex images.