when was rape of persephone discovered
Persephone, the daughter of Demeter and Zeus, is also known as Kore.
Without Demeter’s knowledge, Zeus promised Persephone to his brother Hades. While the young girl was picking flowers one day in the Sicilian countryside with her companions and carefree nymphs, she caught a glimpse of a beautiful narcissus which she approached and picked.
At this instant, the earth opened, and Hades came out of the crevasse on his chariot and kidnapped his niece.
Demeter, mad with grief because she did not know who had abducted her daughter, went out to find her and wandered around the world for nine days and nine nights. At the end of this period, the Sun, emotionally moved, told her the name of the abductor.
To get her revenge, Demeter leaves Olympus and prevents the growth of all plants on Earth. Worried for the future of the mortals, Zeus sends Hermes to the Underworld to find Persephone and bring her back to her mother under one condition: she had not eaten anything during her journey in the underworld. Hades, predicting Zeus’s ruse, gave his wife pomegranate seeds. Thus, he thought that he could keep Persephone.
However, the god was obliged to accept a compromise. Persephone would stay with him only six months of the year and with Demeter the other six months. This deity’s legend is easy to interpret. Persephone is trapped in the underworld just like grains of wheat buried underground in autumn and winter. It is also a view of death associated with the Greek religious practices known as the Eleusinian Mysteries.
“The Rape of Persephone” is a poem composed by Claudian circa 395 A.D.
(for Ovid’s actual version, found in his Metamorphasis Book V check out documents or From Ovid’s Metamorphasis )
In some other stories, she’s in her garden with Ascalaphus when she ends up eating a pomegranate’s seeds. She’s then called out, and Ascalaphus tells Hades that Persephone has eaten the seeds.
This list is by no means exhaustive, but seeks to highlight some prominent examples of the myth in Western paintings.
As part of a set of oil studies intended to be used for painting the ceiling frescoes in the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence, the Mythological Scene with the Rape of Proserpine was created with the intention of being presented to Marquess Francesco Riccardi for approval before being painted in the palace. Currently, ten of the twelve oil studies created between 1682-1685 reside in the National Gallery. 
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 38. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
“At Eleusis flows a Kephisos (Cephisus) River . . . and by the side of it is the place they call Erineus, saying that Plouton [Haides] descended there to the lower world after carrying off Kore (Core) [Persephone].”
Homeric Hymn 2 to Demeter (abridged) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th or 6th B.C.) :
“[Demeter’s] trim-ankled daughter whom Aidoneus [Haides] rapt away, given to him by all-seeing Zeus the loud-thunderer. Apart from Demeter, lady of the golden sword and glorious fruits, she was playing with the deep-bosomed daughters of Okeanos and gathering flowers over a soft meadow, roses and crocuses and beautiful violets, irises also and hyacinths and the narcissus, which Gaia (the Earth) made to grow at the will of Zeus and to please Polydektor (Host of Many), to be a snare for the bloom-like girl–a marvellous, radiant flower. It was a thing of awe whether for deathless gods or mortal men to see: from its root grew a hundred blooms and it smelled most sweetly, so that all wide heaven (ouranos) above and the whole earth (gaia) and the sea’s (thalassa) salt swell laughed for joy. And the girl was amazed and reached out with both hands to take the lovely toy : but the wide-pathed earth yawned there in the plain of Nysa, and the lord, Polydegmon (Host of Many) [Haides], with his immortal horses sprang out upon her–the Son of Kronos (Cronus), Polynomos (He Who has Many Names).
He caught her up reluctant on his golden car and bare her away lamenting. Then she cried out shrilly with her voice, calling upon her father [Zeus], the Son of Kronos, who is most high and excellent. But no one, either of the deathless gods or mortal men, heard her voice, nor yet the olive-trees bearing rich fruit: only tender-hearted Hekate (Hecate), bright-coiffed, the daughter of Persaios (Persaeus), heard the girl from her cave, and the lord Helios (the Sun), Hyperion’s bright son, as she cried to her father, the Son of Kronos. But he was sitting aloof, apart from the gods, in his temple where many pray, and receiving sweet offerings from mortal men. So he [Haides], that Son of Kronos, Polynomos (Of Many Names), Polysemantor (Ruler of Many) and Polydegmon (Host of Many), was bearing her away by leave of Zeus on his immortal chariot–his brother’s child and all unwilling.
And so long as she, the goddess, yet beheld earth and starry heaven and the strong-flowing sea where fishes shoal, and the rays of the sun, and still hoped to see her dear mother and the tribes of the eternal gods, so long hope clamed her great heart for all her trouble . . . and the heights of the mountains and the depths of the sea ran with her immortal voice : and her queenly mother heard her.
A newly revealed mosaic on the floor of a vast Greek tomb shows Hades hauling his reluctant bride Persephone to the underworld, archaeologists announced today (Oct. 16).
Greek archaeologist Katerina Peristeri, who is leading the project, has said the tomb dates back to the fourth century B.C., during the era of the Macedonian leader Alexander the Great. Though Peristeri has been tight-lipped about who she thinks might be buried inside, she told reporters today that, without a doubt, the person must have been “extremely important,” according to the Greek Ministry of Culture.