where is an example of two point perspective seen in raphaels the school of athens
Fig. 7. ‘The School of Athens’ by Raphael (1505), a fine example of architectural perspective with a central vanishing point, marking the high point of the classical Renaissance.
It is surprising, in light of the enthusiasm for perspective depth representation in this period, to find that almost all Renaissance examples relied on the simple one-point perspective scheme. The characteristic of this scheme is that verticals and one set of horizontals (the tranversals) are parallel to the picture plane, so they exhibit no convergence and remain at right angle to each other. Only the third set of horizontals recede into the distance, and hence to a single vanishing point. Artists of the 15th and 16th centuries almost never broke away from the concept of a principal vanishing point governing a rectangular grid on which the architectural elements were constructed. Three examples from the middle of the 15th century using a central vanishing point are shown in Fig. 6. The Piero della Francesca, in particular, has been extensively analyzed for the correctness of its perspective (Wittkower & Carter, 1953), and for the highly accurate detail of the extreme foreshortening in the pavement design, in particular.
Orthogonal: Orthogonal is a term derived from mathematics. It means “at right angles” and is related to orthogonal projection, a method of drawing three-dimensional objects. Orthogonal lines are imaginary lines which are parallel to the ground plane and the line of sight of the viewer. The are usually formed by the straight edges of objects. Orthogonal move back from the picture plane. Orthogonal lines always appear to intersect at a vanishing point on the horizon line, or eye level. Although we do not generally note the convergence of orthogonal lines in real life, sometimes they become apparent when standing in the middle of a road, train tracks or on a long straight urban street.
Diminishing Forms or Diminutation: Refers to the apparent size of objects and how they become smaller when the distance between the object moves further away from the viewer/artist, a key tenant of linear perspective.
Three-point perspective: it’s often used for buildings seen from above (or below). In addition to the two vanishing points from before, one for each wall, there is now one for how the vertical lines of the walls recede. For an object seen from above, this third vanishing point is below the ground.
The conventional history is based on verbal accounts by Manetti (1480) and Vasari (1550), that it was first analyzed by the architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) and demonstrated to his fellow Florentines in two dramatic peep-shows at some unspecified time between the years 1405 and 1425. In fact, no paintings can be found with accurate one-point construction before the year 1423.
Wassily Kandinsky – Composition VII – 1913 Oil on canvas – 200 x 300cm
This was perhaps the beginning of the end of academic composition following the long established rules of perspective. Heavily influenced by Cezanne, several young artists were soon to radically break the mould and themselves become major influences on 20th Century art.
The popular idea that the rhetorical gestures of Plato and Aristotle are kinds of pointing (to the heavens, and down to earth) is very likely. However, Plato’s Timaeus – which is the book Raphael places in his hand – was a sophisticated treatment of space, time, and change, including the Earth, which guided mathematical sciences for over a millennium. Aristotle, with his four-elements theory, held that all change on Earth was owing to motions of the heavens. In the painting Aristotle carries his Ethics, which he denied could be reduced to a mathematical science. It is not certain how much the young Raphael knew of ancient philosophy, what guidance he might have had from people such as Bramante and whether a detailed program was dictated by his sponsor, Pope Julius II.
The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has a rectangular version over 4 metres by 8 metres in size, painted on canvas, dated 1755 by Anton Raphael Mengs on display in the eastern Cast Court.