who built the hades and persephone statue

Who built the hades and persephone statue
PERSEPHONE IN ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLO- GY, SHE, AS THE DAUGHTER OF ZEUS AND DEMETER, WAS WORSHIPPED AS THE GODDESS OF VEGETATION, RETURNING EACH SPRING FROM THE REALM OF HADES TO HERALD THE SEASON OF GROWTH, AND IN WINTER DISAPPEARING TO PASS HER TIME, LIKE THE SEED, UNDER THE EARTH. THE STATUE WAS EXECUTED IN PARIS ABOUT 1840 BY ARMAND TOUSSAINT, 1806-1862. A GIFT OF JAMES IRVING HOLCOMB [1]
Persephone is an outdoor sculpture by artist Armand Toussaint created c. 1840. The work sits within the center of a pool in Holcomb Gardens on the grounds of Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. The sculpture depicts the Greek goddess Persephone. In 1993 the sculpture was examined by the Save Outdoor Sculpture! program produced by the Smithsonian Institution. [1]

Who built the hades and persephone statue
Most critics have been quick to praise the work. Rudolf Wittkower noted: “representations of such rape scenes depended on Bernini’s new, dynamic conception for the next hundred and fifty years”. [4] Howard Hibbard makes similar comments noting the realistic effects that Bernini had achieved via carving hard marble, such as the “texture of the skin, the flying ropes of hair, the tears of Persephone and above all the yielding flesh of the girl”. [5] The choice of incident to depict the story is commonly cited as well: Pluto’s hands encircle the waist of Proserpina just as she throws her arms out in an attempt to escape. [6] Bernini’s own son and biographer, Domenico, called it “an amazing contrast of tenderness and cruelty”. [7]
The Rape of Proserpina (Italian: Ratto di Proserpina) is a large Baroque marble sculptural group by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini, executed between 1621 and 1622. Bernini was only 23 years old at its completion. It depicts the Abduction of Proserpina, who is seized and taken to the underworld by the god Pluto. [1] [2]

Who built the hades and persephone statue
The Rape of Persephone
Modern readers should note that in Bernini’s time the word “rape” signified “kidnapping”; thus, the sculpture thus represents the kidnapping of Persephone.

Who built the hades and persephone statue
When Hades fell in love with Persephone, the daughter of the goddess of nature, he decided to abduct her. Having rarely ventured outside of the Underworld, Hades decided to finally leave his dominion and travel above ground to pursue his love. Because her mother Demeter was not likely to approve of the match, it is said that Hades turned to Zeus for advice who then permitted him to abduct Persephone. While the girl was gathering flowers in the field, Hades caused the ground to split underneath her, and she slipped beneath the earth. When she found her daughter missing, Demeter neglected her duties causing famine. However, Helios, the god of sun, saw everything and eventually told Demeter what had happened. Pressed by the hungry people Zeus ordered Hades to return Persephone to her mother, but he had already tricked her into eating the food of the Underworld, the pomegranate seeds, tying her to his realm. In the end, it was decided that Persephone was to spend some months each year with her husband which caused the earth to become barren and the rest of the year she would be returned to her mother, causing the earth to flourish with life. Not only is this a myth about why we have seasons, but also a source of inspiration of many artworks.
Hades’s grin, as opposed to Persephone’s marble tears, feels displaced, and in the words of Bernini’s own son Domenico, it is „an amazing contrast of tenderness and cruelty“. Hades’s determined stride and furrowed brows are contrasted with her vulnerable pose. The physical and emotional dynamism is further seen in Persephone’s tensed toes, her curled hands and fingers unwilling to touch her abductor telling us of her distress and disgust. Her yielding flesh under Hades’s pressed fingers show us how delicate she is as we half-expect her to scream forgetting we are looking at the hard cold marble. What we see is a moment in time. A moment, when Hades stepped forward and shifted his weight onto his front leg, couldn’t last long and we know he must press on; A moment when Persephone began stretching away from Hades, and seeing his flexing muscles we know he will grab her tighter. Noticing Cerberus, the three-headed guardian of the Underworld, we know his mission is almost over, and the well known story continues in our minds long after we have stopped looking at the sculpture.

Who built the hades and persephone statue
Persephone rarely appears in art before the 6th century BCE, and then she is usually shown with Demeter; often both wear crowns and hold a torch, sceptre, or stalks of grain. A famous 5th-century BCE relief slab from Eleusis depicts Demeter and Persephone (holding a torch) either side of Triptolemos. It is on permanent display in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. On Attic red-figure pottery throughout the Classical period, Persephone is often shown seated on her throne in Hades.
Once the temple was completed, Demeter withdrew from the world and lived inside it; at the same time, she created a great drought to convince the other gods to release Persephone from Hades. As the drought claimed ever more victims, Zeus finally sent Hermes to persuade Hades to release his ill-gotten bride. Before giving her up though, the wily Hades put a pomegranate kernel in the girl’s mouth, knowing its divine taste would compel her to return to him. In other versions of the myth, Persephone could have been released if she had not eaten anything in the underworld during her captivity, but at the last moment, Hades gave her a pomegranate seed. Finally, as a compromise, it was decided that Persephone would be released but that she would have to return to Hades for one-third of the year (or in other accounts one-half).

References:

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_Proserpina
http://www.artble.com/artists/gian_lorenzo_bernini/sculpture/the_rape_of_persephone
http://euphrosynesmuseumofthoughts.wordpress.com/2018/09/20/bernini-the-secret-life-of-sculptures/
http://www.ancient.eu/persephone/
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Rape_of_Proserpina

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