who commisioned school of athens raphael
It’s universally agreed that the older gentleman sprawled on the steps is Diogenes. Founder of the Cynic philosophy, he was a controversial figure in his day, living a simple life and criticizing cultural conventions.
Among the crowd surrounding Socrates are his students, including the general Alcibiades and Aeschines of Sphettus.
School of Athens: Composition
On the left, cloaked in an olive mantle, is Socrates, arguing in a group that includes Chrysippus, Xenophon, Aeschines and Alcibiades. Facing the venerable Venetian scientist Zeno, is Epicurus, crowned with grape leaves, presumably defending the principle of hedonism. Attentively followed by his pupils (including the turbanned Averroes) Pythagoras teaches the diatesseron from a book. In strong contrast in front of him is Xenocrates (others say Parmenides). In the foreground, head resting on his arm, the mournful Heracleitus (with the features of Michelangelo). The absence of this figure in the original cartoon (now in Milan’s Ambrosian Library) and its obvious Michelangelo style (it is modelled on the Sybils and Ignudi of the Sistine ceiling), leads us to believe that Raphael added this figure in 1511 when, after completing the room, he saw the first half of the Sistine Chapel Ceiling frescoes. In tribute to his great rival, Raphael portrayed Michelangelo in the guise of the philosopher from Ephesus. The child at the side of Epicurus, clearly indifferent to the speculations of the thinkers, seems to be Federico Gonzaga (1500-40), later Federico II of Mantua of the famous Gonzaga family of Renaissance patrons and collectors. The passer-by in white translucent toga and da Vinci smile, is supposedly Francesco Maria Della Rovere (1490-1538), nephew of Julius II and later Duke of Urbino.
Other reproductions include: in Königsberg Cathedral, Kaliningrad by Neide,  in the University of North Carolina at Asheville’s Highsmith University Student Union, and a recent one in the seminar room at Baylor University’s Brooks College. A copy of Raphael’s School of Athens was painted on the wall of the ceremonial stairwell that leads to the famous, main-floor reading room of the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève in Paris.
Finally, according to Giorgio Vasari, the scene includes Raphael himself, the Duke of Mantua, Zoroaster and some Evangelists. 
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520) or better known as Raphael along with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo form the triumvirate of great High Renaissance artists. His father, Giovanni Santi, was the court painter to the Duke of Urbino. Growing up as part of the Duke’s court, he gained social skills and refinement that carried over into his art. “Raphael’s compositions are notable for their clarity, harmony and unity of design.” [Fiero 200]
Fiero, Gloria K. Landmarks in Humanities. 2nd ed. 2006. New York: McGraw Hill, 2009. Print.
Introduction Marcia Hall
1. The image of the ancient Gymnasium of Athens, or Philosophy from Giovanni Pietro Bellori, translated by Alice Wohl (1751)
2. The school of Athens Heinrich Wolfflin (1899)
3. The architectural background Ralph E. Lieberman
4. Color and chiaroscuro Janis Bell
5. Pagans in the church: The School of Athens in religious context Timothy Verdon
6. The intellectual background of the School of Athens: tracking divine wisdom in the Rome of Julius II Ingrid D. Rowland.
Review was not posted due to profanity