who is sandro botticelli
Botticelli’s later career was marked by the influence of one charismatic monk in Florence by the name of Savonarola. At Savonarola’s peak of popularity, he burned many works of art and books which he deemed to be ungodly. Among such works were some of Botticelli’s pieces and even after Savonarola’s popular decline and eventual death Botticelli’s paintings remained deeply religious.
Despite such success, however, Botticelli’s later career was blighted by a time of great change in Florence and it was to lead to troubling times for the artist. In an effort to keep up with constantly changing styles and techniques Botticelli accepted difficult commissions, which other artists would not. Botticelli’s decline was cemented by the onset of the High Renaissance, in which his artistic style seemed outdated in comparison. Contemporary artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo further pushed Botticelli from the artistic spotlight.
Sandro Botticelli was one of the greatest painters of the Florentine Renaissance. His Birth of Venus (c. 1485) and Primavera (c. 1480; Spring) are often said to epitomize for modern viewers the spirit of the Renaissance, though his elongated, seemingly weightless figures and fairly flat spaces deviate from the naturalism of other Renaissance painters.
After Lippi left Florence for Spoleto, Botticelli worked to improve the comparatively soft, frail figural style he had learned from his teacher. To this end he studied the sculptural style of Antonio Pollaiuolo and Andrea del Verrocchio, the leading Florentine painters of the 1460s, and under their influence Botticelli produced figures of sculptural roundness and strength. He also replaced Lippi’s delicate approach with a robust and vigorous naturalism, shaped always by conceptions of ideal beauty. Already by 1470 Botticelli was established in Florence as an independent master with his own workshop. Absorbed in his art, he never married, and he lived with his family.
After Lippi left Florence, Botticelli worked to improve the soft figural style he had developed with his teacher. For this, he studied the sculptural style of Antonio Pollaiuolo and Andrea del Verrocchio, the leading Florentine painters of the 1460s. It was under their influence that Botticelli produced figures of sculptural roundness and strength.
Roughly halfway through the first decade of the 16th-century, Botticelli’s art would have seemed old-fashioned compared to the works of Da Vinci and Michelangelo, even though it had been widely copied and revered during the 1490s.
In the past there was speculation that he had also had a period in a more progressive workshop, and both that of the Pollaiuolo brothers and Verrochio have been suggested, based on some undoubted influence these had on Botticelli’s style. Current thinking is that no actual period in a different workshop is needed to account for this. 
A large fresco for the customs house of Florence, that is now lost, depicted the execution by hanging of the leaders of the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 against the Medici. It was a Florentine custom to humiliate traitors in this way, by the so-called “pittura infamante“.  This was Botticelli’s first major fresco commission (apart from the abortive Pisa excursion), and may have led to his summons to Rome. The figure of Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa was removed in 1479, after protests from the Pope, and the rest were destroyed after the expulsion of the Medici and return of the Pazzi family in 1494.  Another lost work was a tondo of the Madonna ordered by a Florentine banker in Rome to present to Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga; this perhaps spread awareness of his work to Rome. A fresco in the Palazzo Vecchio, headquarters of the Florentine state, was lost in the next century when Vasari remodelled the building. 
In 1472 Botticelli enrolled in the Compagnia di San Luca, registering Filippino Lippi as his assistant. Filippino’s presence in his workshop has given rise to debate over a group of works, attributed first to Botticelli himself, then to a fictitious “Amico di Sandro”; scholars today generally agree in ascribing them to the young Filippino, active in Botticelli’s workshop. The 1470s also saw the beginning of Botticelli’s close relationship with the Medici family, which resulted in a series of commissions including the Portrait of a Young Man with a Medal of Cosimo the Elder (Uffizi, no. 1488); the various versions of a portrait of Giuliano de’ Medici (Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, no. 524; Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, no. 106B; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1952.5.56); the Adoration of the Magi (Uffizi, no. 882) painted for Gaspare del Lama, but also containing Medici portraits; and the Allegory of Spring, Birth of Venus, and Pallas and the Centaur (Uffizi, nos. 8360, 878, and 29 Dep), painted for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici. In 1481-1482 Botticelli was called to Rome to participate in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel, where he painted, along with a series of full-length figures of popes, the Temptations of Moses, Temptations of Christ, and Conturbation of the Laws of Moses. Direct contact with the monuments of ancient Rome enriched his pictorial idiom; he framed the rhythms of his narratives with a new grandeur and naturalness, animated in the Sistine Chapel murals by the lively and complex movement of the figures and the inclusion of an extraordinary succession of portraits.
Although there is no official record of the year and day of Botticelli’s birth, scholars consider as the most reliable source his father’s tax declaration that on 1 March 1447 Alessandro was two years old, making 1445 his birth year. However, according to Florentine style the year began on March 25, thus translating the year of his birth to 1446 in the modern calendar. The son of Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, Alessandro–whose nickname derives from that of his brother Giovanni, called “Botticello” (little barrel)–entered Filippo Lippi’s workshop toward the end of the 1450s. The mark of Lippi’s style is clearly recognizable in Sandro’s earliest paintings, works such as the Madonna and Child in the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence and the Madonna and Child with an Angel in the Musée Fesch in Ajaccio. In the mid-1460s, perhaps because of Fra Filippo’s departure for Spoleto in 1467, the young artist moved into the sphere of Verrocchio, whose style is reflected in another group of Botticelli’s early paintings, which attest a more analytical vision, an interest in anatomy, and an attention to gestures that reveal states of mind. Works from this period include the Madonna and Child in the Musée du Louvre, Paris (no. 1298) and the Madonna and Child with Angels in the Museo di Capodimonte, Naples (no. 46). His first documented commission was for the figure of Fortitude (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, no. 1606), painted in 1470 to complete the series of allegorical images created by the Pollaiuolo brothers’ workshop for the Tribunale della Mercanzia. To this period also belong the Virgin against a Rose-Hedge (no. 1601) and the diptych Judith and Holofernes (nos. 1484, 1487) in the Uffizi, in which the artist’s perfect mastery of drawing and skill at expressing intense emotions demonstrate the full achievement of his maturity.