who painted five separate versions of the biblical story of judith and holofernes
Artemisia Gentileschi, The Annunciation, 1630. Photo via Wikimedia Commons.
Artemisia Gentileschi, Self-portrait (Allegory of Painting), 1637. Photo via Wikimedia Commons.
EL FILIBUSTERISMO complete script
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The entire ceiling is a fresco, which is an ancient method for painting murals that relies upon a chemical reaction between damp lime plaster and water-based pigments to permanently fuse the work into the wall.  Michelangelo had been an apprentice in the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, one of the most competent and prolific of Florentine fresco painters, at the time that the latter was employed on a fresco cycle at Santa Maria Novella and whose work was represented on the walls of the Sistine Chapel.  [ page needed ] At the outset, the plaster, intonaco, began to grow mould because it was too wet. Michelangelo had to remove it and start again. He then tried a new formula created by one of his assistants, Jacopo l’Indaco, which resisted mould and entered the Italian building and fresco tradition.  [ page needed ]
In spring 1508, Michelangelo returned to Rome to work on a cycle of frescoes on the vault and upper walls of the Sistine Chapel.   This work, also commissioned by Pope Julius II, “was equally daunting, but was brought to sublime fruition.”   Michelangelo was reluctant to agree to the commission, preferring sculpture to painting, “but he made of it his most heroic achievement”.   Initially he sought to engage assistants to speed along the onerous and unwelcome work as quickly as he could, but he was unable to find suitable candidates and painted nearly the whole ceiling alone.  Among the Florentine artists whom Michelangelo brought to Rome in the hope of assisting in the fresco, Giorgio Vasari named Francesco Granacci, Giuliano Bugiardini, Jacopo di Sandro, l’Indaco the Elder, Agnolo di Domenico, and Aristotile. 
51 The first identifiable Christian images of Judith are found among fifth-century frescos at Nolo, Naples and the eighth-century frescos of Santa Maria Antiqua in Rome. Judith iconography was nurtured in illuminated manuscript traditions such as the Winchester Bible and the illuminated manuscript of the Speculum Virginum, or Mirror of Virgins. From the Renaissance on, ”Judiths” were a staple of artist workshops and were produced contemporaneously with the development of oil painting on canvas. Donatello, Caravaggio, and both Artemisia and Orazio Gentileschi created works based on the subject of Judith. Donatello’s monumental freestanding bronze of Judith initiated an important change in the iconography of Judith. The sculpture Judith and Holofernes became a metaphor for Medici rule in Florence. The five papers on the visual arts elaborate these themes.
7 The Sword of Judith maps the terrain of Judith Studies across disciplines in two sections: Writing Judith: Jewish Textual Traditions and Christian Textual Traditions and Staging Judith: The Visual Arts and Music and Drama. The essays were conceived and developed over the course of a year-long collaboration among scholars called the Judith Project, facilitated by the New York Public Library’s Digital Experience Group. ARTstor, the digital image library, has assembled a digital collection of Judith images, some of which are published here, accessible through ARTstor portals at most university, college, government, and private research libraries. Jstor, the digital archive, compiled and made available journal articles on Judith for the benefit of scholars working in the project.
a. Playing two organs against each other
a. Transforms the calling into a miracle