who painted impression: sunrise which played a significant role in giving impressionism its name
The representation of Le Havre, hometown of Monet and a center of industry and commerce, celebrates the “renewed strength and beauty of the country. Monet’s ultimate utopian statement.” Art demonstrating France’s revitalization, Monet’s depiction of Le Havre’s sunrise mirrors the renewal of France. 
However, this idyllic perspective of the exhibition was not the view of all critics. Louis Leroy, for Le Charivari, is often quoted in his review on Monet’s work. His article “The Impressionist Exhibition” is written as a dialogue from the imaginary perspective of an old-fashioned painter, shocked at the works of Monet and his associates:
One cultural event that had an immense effect on the artwork of Monet was the Franco-Prussian War. Lasting from 1870-1871, the war was a conflict between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Second French Empire. France ultimately lost the war, marking the end of Napoleon III’s empire, and was forced to relinquish the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Prussia. While the war only lasted a year, the results of the war were damaging to French government, society, and morale. As France began its recovery from the war, individuals began to unite for the purpose of reconstructing the nation. Monet had a heavy engagement with the revitalization of French pride and spirit, depicting his fervor in many of his paintings made at that time. In particular, his Impression, Sunrise strongly emphasizes France’s determination to rebuild and recover from the devastation of the war. Since the 1850s, Le Havre had slowly grown to become the second largest port of France. In Impression, Sunrise, Monet’s inclusion of many large ships in the painting depicts this fact. After the Franco-Prussian war, however, the harbor experienced a more steady increase in population and business. The expansion of the port was seen in the early 1870s as a testimony to France’s post-war renewal. At the time of Impression, Sunrise’s creation, Le Havre harbor was the site of many of the city’s largest and most important industries. Many indications of this fact can be found in Monet’s painting. The haziness in Impression, Sunrise is due not only to the morning mists of the channel, but also to the emissions produced by factories and steam ships. The heavy machinery noticeable in the artwork was part of a construction project that was taken up following the armistice signed between Prussia and France. Although it is hard to believe an industrialized, smoggy scene could be viewed as one of beauty, to the people of the time like Monet, this scene would have been a source of inspiration for the prosperity of the future.
 Patin, Sylvie. Monet: The Ultimate Impressionist. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1993. Print.
“The shared point of view that makes them a group with a collective force of its own. is their decision not to strive for detailed finished, but to go no further than a certain overall aspect. Once the impression has been discerned and set down, they declare their task finished. . If we are to describe them with a single word, we must invent the new term Impressionists . They are Impressionists in the sense that they depict not the landscape but the sensation produced by the landscape.” 4
In his review of the exhibition, the art critic for Le Charivari, Louis Leroy, used the title of Monet’s painting as the headline, calling it the “Exhibition of Impressionists.” Leroy had meant it sarcastically as the term “impression” was used “to describe a rapidly notated painting of an atmospheric effect, [that] artists rarely, if ever exhibited pictures so quickly sketched” 2 . The label stuck. In his review published on 25 April 1874, Leroy wrote:
Le Charivari critic Louise Leroy was perhaps the most effusive with his criticism and his views were compounded by a series of articles against the impressionists and their form of art. At the time of the exhibition Leroy noted that:-
Monet was a painter renowned for being able to portray vibrant color and detailed shades of black with equal skill. Impression Sunrise is a good example of this as even though the darkened figures at the forefront of the painting have not been given much space or detail, they have a significant bearing on the painting.
American John Rand never joined their ranks as a preeminent artist, but as a painter living in London, he designed in 1841 a device that would revolutionize the art world: paint in a tube. His clever new technology offered easily portable, pre-mixed paint, and allowed painters to bring their process outdoors.
Comprised of works submitted to the Salon that were rejected by the Académie, the group calling itself “The Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers” featured 30 artists showing work, including some of the most now-famous names in art: Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas and Camille Pissarro.