who painted the school of athens
In fact Raphael’s painterly skills were soon in such demand that he was obliged to leave more and more work to his assistants, such as Giovanni Francesco Penni (1496-1536), Giulio Romano (1499-1546) and Perino del Vaga (Piero Buonaccorsi) (1501-47). Responsible for numerous altarpieces, such as The Sistine Madonna (1513-14, Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden) and The Transfiguration (1518-20, Pinacoteca Apostolica, Vatican), as well as other examples of religious art, he also produced several famous Renaissance portraits of ecclesiastical and secular subjects – such as Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-15, Louvre) and Pope Leo X with Cardinals (1518, Galleria Palatina, Pitti Palace, Florence). Arguably the finest painter of the Italian Renaissance, Raphael remains one of the best artists of all time.
An important feature of this work, as in all Raphael’s paintings, is the artist’s use of his Renaissance colour palette – in this case, to highlight certain characters and to control the attention of the viewer. See how certain hues act as reference points across the canvas.
It is popularly thought that their gestures indicate central aspects of their philosophies, for Plato, his Theory of Forms, and for Aristotle, an emphasis on concrete particulars. Many interpret the painting to show a divergence of the two philosophical schools. Plato argues a sense of timelessness whilst Aristotle looks into the physicality of life and the present realm.
There are two sculptures in the background. The one on the left is the god Apollo, god of light, archery and music, holding a lyre.  The sculpture on the right is Athena, goddess of wisdom, in her Roman guise as Minerva. 
The fresco “The School of Athens” does not depict a real group of Athenians -here are not only the Athenians (for example, the philosophers Parmenides and his disciple Zeno were not citizens of Athens) and not only contemporaries, but also thinkers who lived in other times and in other countries ( for example, Persian philosopher-mystic Zoroaster, who lived several centuries before Plato, or a Muslim translator and commentator, who lived many centuries later Aristotle Averroes). Thus, the “School of Athens” is the perfect community of thinkers of the classical era, the community of teachers and students. However, portraying these famous people of the past, Rafael gives them the features of his prominent contemporaries. In total, the mural features over 50 pieces (many of them can not be defined, what about some no single point of view).
The rooms holding the paintings are known as the Stanze di Rafaello. The four branches of knowledge represented in the frescoes are poetry, law, philosophy and theology. Considered by many art historians to be Rafael’s masterpiece, the School of Athens has 21 artists and philosophers in a large court with receding vaults. Above them are statues of the mythological Greek gods Apollo, the god of light and music, and Athena, the goddess of wisdom.
It’s universally agreed that the older gentleman sprawled on the steps is Diogenes. Founder of the Cynic philosophy, he was a controversial figure in his day, living a simple life and criticizing cultural conventions.
In the 15th century, a tradition of decorating private libraries with portraits of great thinkers was common. Raphael took the idea to a whole new level with massive compositions that reflected philosophy, theology, literature, and jurisprudence. Read as a whole, they immediately transmitted the intellect of the pope and would have sparked discussion between cultured minds that were lucky enough to enter into this private space.
23 Euclid (О•П…ОєО»ОµОЇОґО·П‚ Ої О‘О»ОµОѕО±ОЅОґПЃОµПЌП‚)(c. 325 – c. 265 BC) or Archimedes(О‘ПЃП‡О№ОјО®ОґО·П‚ Ої ОЈП…ПЃО±ОєОїПЌПѓО№ОїП‚) (287 вЂ“ 212 BC) ?
Geometry is represented by Euclid bending down to draw on a slate tablet with a pair of dividers(looking like the architect Bramante of Urbino (the architect of St. Peter’s) according to some experts), who is explaining to his pupils a geometric diagram he has drawn on a slate. Other say that Archimedes is shown in a pose like when he was killed by a Roman soldier. The figure immediately behind and slightly above is some say that of Federico Gonzaga. Bramante used geometry for the design of buildings and was selected to represent one of the two geometers. From the surrounding persons that look like students it is more likely that Euclid is shown as I do not know that Archimedes was also a teacher like Euclid. 17, 24, 22, 18 some say represent the four stages of learning: 17 is intent but at the level of literal learning, and 24, with his pointing finger and encouraging pat seems to be an apprentice teacher; 22 is turning to his companion with the excitement of dawning comprehension, but 18 is already anticipating the outcome.