who was the school of athens painted for
The School of Athens (Italian: Scuola di Atene) is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael’s commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. The Stanza della Segnatura was the first of the rooms to be decorated, and The School of Athens, representing philosophy, was probably the third painting to be finished there, after La Disputa (Theology) on the opposite wall, and the Parnassus (Literature).  The picture has long been seen as “Raphael’s masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the Renaissance”.  The painting is notable for its accurate perspective projection. 
The main arch, above the characters, shows a meander (also known as a Greek fret or Greek key design), a design using continuous lines that repeat in a “series of rectangular bends” which originated on pottery of the Greek Geometric period and then become widely used in ancient Greek architectural friezes. 
2 Aristotle (О‘ПЃО№ПѓП„ОїП„ОО»О·П‚ Ої ОЈП„О±ОіОµО№ПЃОЇП„О·П‚) (384 – 322 BC)
Assumed to be inspired by Michelangelo’s work of Jeremiah (Chapelle Sixtine, finished 1511?) (Like the melancholic Heraclitus Jeremiah is known from his Lamentations: вЂњHe hath led me, and brought me into darkness, and not into lightвЂќ). But also Michelangelo liked to be alone and although he obtained from the Pope much more money for his work than any other artist he was a scrooge.
Long thought to be a portrait of Michelangelo himself, the brooding nature would have matched the artist’s character. In the realm of philosophers, he is Heraclitus, a self-taught pioneer of wisdom. He was a melancholy character and did not enjoy the company of others, making him one of the few isolated characters in the fresco.
“The School of Athens” preparatory cartoon
Further to the right, calmly reclining on the stairs, is Diogenes, the oject of the remonstrations by the disciples of the Academy. In the foreground, to the right of Aristotle, Raphael placed the High Renaissance architect Donato Bramante (1444-1514) in the person of Euclid, who is pictured bending over a table and demonstrating a theorem with the aid of a compass. Bramante, the architectural adviser to Julius II, and a distant relative of Raphael’s from Urbino, was responsible for Raphael’s summons to Rome, and the younger man reciprocates by signing his name in the gold border of Bramante’s tunic. Over to the right, identified by the crown he wears, is the geographer Ptolemy, holding the globe of the earth. Facing him is the atronomer Zoroaster, holding the globe of the sky. The young man at their side and facing the viewer is supposedly Raphael himself in the company of Sodoma (white robe), the artist who preceded Raphael in the decoration of the ceiling of the Signature room.
For the meaning of other masterpieces, see: Famous Paintings Analyzed.
A likeness of Donato Bramante is also in the School Of Athens as Euclid who is situated on the right bottom side of the fresco, bent over showing eager students a theorem. Raphael even painted in a self-portrait. He is the very young-looking man looking directly at us looking over his left shoulder in a black cap on the very far right.
Raphael modeled a lot of these figures on actual people that he knew or met, some of whom are major figures in art history today. Plato, for example, has the clear likeness of Leonardo Da Vinci who Raphael knew. In fact, Raphael may even have been one of the first people to see Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.